Chadwick Chadwick: Software Tools for Scoring Baseball Games

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cwgame: Game information extractor

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cwevent: Expanded event descriptor

cwevent is a command-line tool which extracts detailed information about individual events (plays) in the data file. These are grouped into two categories. There are 97 fields which are compatible with the Retrosheet BEVENT event descriptor tool. These are specified using the -f command-line flag. In addition, cwevent offers a number “extended” fields which expand upon or give more detailed information not easily accessed via the standard fields. These are are specified using the -x command-line flag.

Note

cwevent guarantees that the standard field numbers will match those used by BEVENT. Standard field numbers therefore can be treated as stable, and it should be safe to write scripts referring to them. Extended fields are provisional, and extended fields may be added or withdrawn in future versions. Extended fields are assigned numbers to maintain a logical cohesion, with related fields being grouped. Therefore, extended field numbers are not promised to be stable. It is recommended to use the field labels instead in writing scripts to process the output of cwevent extended fields.

cwevent standard field numbers
Field number Description Header
0 Game ID GAME_ID
1 Visiting team AWAY_TEAM_ID
2 Inning INN_CT
3 Batting team BAT_HOME_ID
4 Outs OUTS_CT
5 Balls BALLS_CT
6 Strikes STRIKES_CT
7 Pitch sequence PITCH_SEQ_TX
8 Visitor score AWAY_SCORE_CT
9 Home score HOME_SCORE_CT
10 Batter BAT_ID
11 Batter hand BAT_HAND_CD
12 Result batter RESP_BAT_ID
13 Result batter hand RESP_BAT_HAND_CD
14 Pitcher PIT_ID
15 Pitcher hand PIT_HAND_CD
16 Result pitcher RESP_PIT_ID
17 Result pitcher hand RESP_PIT_HAND_CD
18 Catcher POS2_FLD_ID
19 First baseman POS3_FLD_ID
20 Second baseman POS4_FLD_ID
21 Third baseman POS5_FLD_ID
22 Shortstop POS6_FLD_ID
23 Left fielder POS7_FLD_ID
24 Center fielder POS8_FLD_ID
25 Right fielder POS9_FLD_ID
26 Runner on first BASE1_RUN_ID
27 Runner on second BASE2_RUN_ID
28 Runner on third BASE3_RUN_ID
29 Event text EVENT_TX
30 Leadoff flag LEADOFF_FL
31 Pinch-hit flag PH_FL
32 Defensive position BAT_FLD_CD
33 Lineup position BAT_LINEUP_ID
34 Event type EVENT_CD
35 Batter event flag BAT_EVENT_FL
36 Official time at bat flag AB_FL
37 Hit value H_FL
38 Sacrifice hit flag SH_FL
39 Sacrifice fly flag SF_FL
40 Outs on play EVENT_OUTS_CT
41 Double play flag DP_FL
42 Triple play flag TP_FL
43 RBI on play RBI_CT
44 Wild pitch flag WP_FL
45 Passed ball flag PB_FL
46 Fielded by FLD_CD
47 Batted ball type BATTEDBALL_CD
48 Bunt flag BUNT_FL
49 Foul flag FOUL_FL
50 Hit location BATTEDBALL_LOC_TX
51 Number of errors ERR_CT
52 1st error player ERR1_FLD_CD
53 1st error type ERR1_CD
54 2nd error player ERR2_FLD_CD
55 2nd error type ERR2_CD
56 3rd error player ERR3_FLD_CD
57 3rd error type ERR3_CD
58 Batter destination BAT_DEST_ID
59 Runner on first destination RUN1_DEST_ID
60 Runner on second destination RUN2_DEST_ID
61 Runner on third destination RUN3_DEST_ID
62 Play on batter BAT_PLAY_TX
63 Play on runner on first RUN1_PLAY_TX
64 Play on runner on second RUN2_PLAY_TX
65 Play on runner on third RUN3_PLAY_TX
66 Stolen base for runner on first RUN1_SB_FL
67 Stolen base for runner on second RUN2_SB_FL
68 Stolen base for runner on third RUN3_SB_FL
69 Caught stealing for runner on first RUN1_CS_FL
70 Caught stealing for runner on second RUN2_CS_FL
71 Caught stealing for runner on third RUN3_CS_FL
72 Pickoff of runner on first RUN1_PK_FL
73 Pickoff of runner on second RUN2_PK_FL
74 Pickoff of runner on third RUN3_PK_FL
75 Pitcher charged with runner on first RUN1_RESP_PIT_ID
76 Pitcher charged with runner on second RUN2_RESP_PIT_ID
77 Pitcher charged with runner on third RUN3_RESP_PIT_ID
78 New game flag GAME_NEW_FL
79 End game flag GAME_END_FL
80 Pinch-runner on first PR_RUN1_FL
81 Pinch-runner on second PR_RUN2_FL
82 Pinch-runner on third PR_RUN3_FL
83 Runner removed for pinch-runner on first REMOVED_FOR_PR_RUN1_ID
84 Runner removed for pinch-runner on second REMOVED_FOR_PR_RUN2_ID
85 Runner removed for pinch-runner on third REMOVED_FOR_PR_RUN3_ID
86 Batter removed for pinch-hitter REMOVED_FOR_PH_BAT_ID
87 Position of batter removed for pinch-hitter REMOVED_FOR_PH_BAT_FLD_CD
88 Fielder with first putout PO1_FLD_CD
89 Fielder with second putout PO2_FLD_CD
90 Fielder with third putout PO3_FLD_CD
91 Fielder with first assist ASS1_FLD_CD
92 Fielder with second assist ASS2_FLD_CD
93 Fielder with third assist ASS3_FLD_CD
94 Fielder with fourth assist ASS4_FLD_CD
95 Fielder with fifth assist ASS5_FLD_CD
96 Event number EVENT_ID
cwevent extended field numbers
Field number Description Header
0 home team id HOME_TEAM_ID
1 batting team id BAT_TEAM_ID
2 fielding team id FLD_TEAM_ID
3 half inning (differs from batting team if home team bats first) BAT_LAST_ID
4 start of half inning flag INN_NEW_FL
5 end of half inning flag INN_END_FL
6 score for team on offense START_BAT_SCORE_CT
7 score for team on defense START_FLD_SCORE_CT
8 runs scored in this half inning INN_RUNS_CT
9 number of plate appearances in game for team on offense GAME_PA_CT
10 number of plate appearances in inning for team on offense INN_PA_CT
11 start of plate appearance flag PA_NEW_FL
12 truncated plate appearance flag PA_TRUNC_FL
13 base state at start of play START_BASES_CD
14 base state at end of play END_BASES_CD
15 batter is starter flag BAT_START_FL
16 result batter is starter flag RESP_BAT_START_FL
17 ID of the batter on deck BAT_ON_DECK_ID
18 ID of the batter in the hold BAT_IN_HOLD_ID
19 pitcher is starter flag PIT_START_FL
20 result pitcher is starter flag RESP_PIT_START_FL
21 defensive position of runner on first RUN1_FLD_CD
22 lineup position of runner on first RUN1_LINEUP_CD
23 event number on which runner on first reached base RUN1_ORIGIN_EVENT_ID
24 defensive position of runner on second RUN2_FLD_CD
25 lineup position of runner on second RUN2_LINEUP_CD
26 event number on which runner on second reached base RUN2_ORIGIN_EVENT_ID
27 defensive position of runner on third RUN3_FLD_CD
28 lineup position of runner on third RUN3_LINEUP_CD
29 event number on which runner on third reached base RUN3_ORIGIN_EVENT_ID
30 responsible catcher for runner on first RUN1_RESP_CAT_ID
31 responsible catcher for runner on second RUN2_RESP_CAT_ID
32 responsible catcher for runner on third RUN3_RESP_CAT_ID
33 number of balls in plate appearance PA_BALL_CT
34 number of called balls in plate appearance PA_CALLED_BALL_CT
35 number of intentional balls in plate appearance PA_INTENT_BALL_CT
36 number of pitchouts in plate appearance PA_PITCHOUT_BALL_CT
37 number of pitches hitting batter in plate appearance PA_HITBATTER_BALL_CT
38 number of other balls in plate appearance PA_OTHER_BALL_CT
39 number of strikes in plate appearance PA_STRIKE_CT
40 number of called strikes in plate appearance PA_CALLED_STRIKE_CT
41 number of swinging strikes in plate appearance PA_SWINGMISS_STRIKE_CT
42 number of foul balls in plate appearance PA_FOUL_STRIKE_CT
43 number of balls in play in plate appearance PA_INPLAY_STRIKE_CT
44 number of other strikes in plate appearance PA_OTHER_STRIKE_CT
45 number of runs on play EVENT_RUNS_CT
46 id of player fielding batted ball FLD_ID
47 force play at second flag BASE2_FORCE_FL
48 force play at third flag BASE3_FORCE_FL
49 force play at home flag BASE4_FORCE_FL
50 batter safe on error flag BAT_SAFE_ERR_FL
51 fate of batter (base ultimately advanced to) BAT_FATE_ID
52 fate of runner on first RUN1_FATE_ID
53 fate of runner on second RUN2_FATE_ID
54 fate of runner on third RUN3_FATE_ID
55 runs scored in half inning after this event FATE_RUNS_CT
56 fielder with sixth assist ASS6_FLD_CD
57 fielder with seventh assist ASS7_FLD_CD
58 fielder with eighth assist ASS8_FLD_CD
59 fielder with ninth assist ASS9_FLD_CD
60 fielder with tenth assist ASS10_FLD_CD
61 unknown fielding credit flag UNKNOWN_OUT_EXC_FL
62 uncertain play flag UNCERTAIN_PLAY_EXC_FL

Result batters and pitchers (fields 10-17)

In most cases, the pitcher and batter charged or credited with the event (when a batter event) are the ones in the game when the event occurs. However, Rules 10.17 and 10.18 have special clauses discussing how to charge walks to pitchers when a relief pitcher enters in the middle of the plate appearance, and how to charge strikeouts to batters when a pinch hitter enters in the middle of the plate appearance. The batter and pitcher fields always give the identity of the batter and pitcher in the game at the time of the event; the result batter and result pitcher give the batter and pitcher credited or charged with the event.

There is one known bug in the Retrosheet-provided tools regarding the result pitcher. When a relief pitcher enters the game, and then the next batter is retired on a fielder’s choice, the pitcher responsible for the runner put out is shown in the result pitcher field. While it is correct that the batter reaching base in this case would be charged to the former pitcher should he score, the purpose of the result pitcher field is to indicate the pitcher charged with the outcome of this particular event. In this case, for example, the relief pitcher is awarded one-third of an inning pitched; therefore, he should be the result pitcher, and then the previous pitcher should be (and is) listed in the responsible pitcher field for the batter in subsequent events.

In the case of switch-hitters, the batter hand and result batter hand fields are set to L or R, as appropriate, based upon the hand with which the pitcher throws. If the pitcher’s throwing hand is unknown, or if the batter’s batting hand is unknown, a question mark appears in these fields.

Pinch-hit flag (field 31)

This field is T if the batter is a pinch-hitter, and F if he is not. If a player enters the game as a pinch-hitter, and then bats again in the same inning because his team bats around, this field will be F for the player’s second plate appearance. To identify the cases where this occurs, consult the defensive position field (field 32), which will continue to be equal to 11 (or 12 for a pinch-runner) until that player assumes a defensive position.

Event type code (field 34)

All plays are categorized by their primary event type. Here is a list of all types and the corresponding codes used in this field. Codes marked “obsolete” are no longer used, or no longer appear in Retrosheet-produced play-by-play files.

cwevent extended field numbers
Code Primary event
0 Unknown (obsolete)
1 None (obsolete)
2 Generic out
3 Strikeout
4 Stolen base
5 Defensive indifference
6 Caught stealing
7 Pickoff error (obsolete)
8 Pickoff
9 Wild pitch
10 Passed ball
11 Balk
12 Other advance/out advancing
13 Foul error
14 Walk
15 Intentional walk
16 Hit by pitch
17 Interference
18 Error
19 Fielder’s choice
20 Single
21 Double
22 Triple
23 Home run
24 Missing play (obsolete)

Sacrifice flags and eras (fields 36, 38, 39)

Chadwick in all cases applies the modern rules concerning the awarding of sacrifice hits, sacrifice flies, and official times at bat, regardless of the year indicated with the -y flag.

Plays on runners (fields 58-65)

Fields 58 through 65 give the destination of all runners, including the batter, as well as the fielding play made on them, if any. For the purposes of the destination fields, a code of 5 indicates the runner scored, and is charged as unearned, and a code of 6 indicates the runner scored, and is charged as unearned to the team, but earned to the pitcher. These codes only appear when the (NR) or (TUR) modifiers are explicitly used on the advancement code. There is no internal logic in Chadwick to ferret out which runs should be earned or unearned, as in many cases there is insufficient information, or the situation requires the judgment of the official scorer. Runners which are put out are reported as having an advancement of 0.

In most cases, the play on a runner indicates the fielding credits involved in putting him out. Chadwick also reports a fielding play on a runner when the runner is safe on a dropped throw, such as 3E1 or FC6.1X2(6E4).

Fielding errors (fields 51-57)

Up to three errors can be indicated in cwevent output. Supported error types are F for generic fielding errors, and T for throwing errors; no distinction is made between bobbled batted balls, muffed throws or fly balls, and so forth.

Pitcher responsibility for runs (fields 75-77)

The Official Rules for charging runs to pitchers stipulate that if a pitcher is relieved in the middle of an inning with runners left on base, he is charged with runs if those runners (or the ones who replace them in the event of fielder’s choices) subsequently score in the inning. The current rule is Rule 10.16(g), the comment on which in the rules states:

It is the intent of Rule 10.16(g) to charge each pitcher with the number of runners he put on base, rather than with the individual runners. When a pitcher puts runners on base and is relieved, such pitcher shall be charged with all runs subsequently scored up to and including the number of runners such pitcher left on base when such pitcher left the game, unless such runners are put out without action by the batter.

Chadwick implements this by assigning “responsibility” for runners, and shifting those runners after fielder’s choices as appropriate to implement the rule. Fields 75 through 77 report the pitcher currently “charged” with runners on base using this method.

There is one special case to note in reporting these fields. As noted, a fielder’s choice does not absolve a departed pitcher for responsibility for a potential run. Ordinarily it is good enough to report the shift in responsibility at the start of the next play. However, consider the following scenario: The bases are loaded, with the runner on third (R3) the responsibility of Pitcher A and runners on second and first (R2 and R1) the responsibility of Pitcher B. The batter hits a ground ball and R3 is forced at home. Then, the catcher throws wildly trying to complete the double play, and as a result R2 scores. In this case, the run scored by R2 is charged to Pitcher A, not Pitcher B, i.e., the responsibility shifts in the middle of the play. In order to facilitate calculation of runs and earned runs allowed correctly from cwevent output, in this case, the record for the play will report R2 as being the responsibility of Pitcher A, i.e., it will report the responsibility after the mid-play shift.

This convention will not affect most applications. Indeed, the Official Rules technically do not have a concept of assigning responsibility to particular runners, and the contents of fields 75-77 only have meaning on plays in which the corresponding runners score. This convention may confuse certain calculations, however, including those which try to track what happens to inherited runners, if one does not take appropriate care to handle this very unusual case.

Fielding credits (fields 88-95)

The order in which Chadwick and the Retrosheet-provided tools list putouts and assists may vary. The number of plays on which this occurs is quite few, and generally in cases where there is a putout in the primary event as well as one in the baserunning modifiers. The words “first”, “second” and so on do not necessarily indicate chronological order of the credits, though in most cases they do.